In-situ Metallography


PERS, under the NDT service, performs 

In-Situ Metallography

to determine in-service degradation of critical components of process and plants operating under high temperature, high-pressure and corrosive atmospheres. This technique enables real-time component condition monitoring and health assessments. PERS Metallurgists have extensive experience in the interpretation of microstructures and have more than 15,000 replica microstructure interpretations logged and captured in its proprietary database. The databases contain exhaustive information from various plants, captured over the course of four decades of service. The database also includes rare collections of varying microstructure damage levels from various industries such as power, oil, and gas, petrochemical, fertilizers among others.

The In-Situ Metallography team at PERS is highly skilled in the art of replica preparation. PERS has custom-developed special purpose in-situ polishing devices that assist in metallographic polishing under difficult locations and allows the field services team to carry out high-quality replication even on warm components.


In-Situ Metallography is performed for the following areas

  • To find out in-service degradation of critical components of the process plants operating under high temperature/high pressure/corrosive atmosphere
  • To conduct damage Assessment of fire-affected equipment of the plants
  • To undertake microstructure survey for critical components like boilers, pipelines, reactors, and vessels for condition monitoring/health assessment
  • To develop a databank of critical components of process plant equipment by periodical monitoring for preventive maintenance and planning for inventory control
  • To provide suggestions about their welding components of process plants
  • To check the quality of the microstructure of components for intended service, before putting it into use

In-situ Metallography and replication is used for microstructural analysis while examining large components that cannot be easily moved or when destructive sample preparation is difficult or not permissible. The testing allows quick on-site evaluation of a component’s metallurgical and heat treatment condition and assists investigators in carrying out a remaining life assessment study or a failure analysis project.

Damages Identified by Microstructures

  • ​​​Graphitization
  • Degradation of pearlite
  • Creep
  • Thermal fatigue
  • Oxidation
  • Grain growth
  • Hydrogen attack
  • Stress corrosion cracking
  • Sigma phase formation

Core capabilities for Metallurgical Replica Interpretation

PERS, at their material testing laboratories, has a state-of-the-art Inverted Metallurgical Microscope, GX5, from Olympus Corporation, Japan. This Inverted Metallurgical Microscope allows expert metallurgists at PERS to perform Volume Fraction Measurement by point count method as per E-562 used for Duplex Steel and Carbide Morphology Distribution as per STAHL-EISEN-PRUFBLATT 1520 (SEP-1520) German chart for checking microstructures.



At PERS, the 5 following sets of In-Situ Metallography kits and equipment are available:

  • Insipol 2000 And Advanced Electrolytic Flow Type Polisher And Etcher
  • Portable Rough Grinder With Self-Adhesive Papers
  • Portable Fine Polishing (Mini Grinder)
  • Portable Microscope Capable Up To 400X Magnification
  • Replica Kit: Used With Specialized Plastic Based Slides For Replica Preservation (For Longer Durability And Ease Of Handling On Site)


  • Objective Of In-Situ Metallography – Condition Assessment, Fire/Damage Assessment, Remaining Life Assessment, Or Baseline Data Generation
  • Material of Construction with Exact Specification
  • Location of Replication with Sketch
  • Process Parameters and Design Parameters
  • Service Life of The Component at the Time of Replication
  • Any History Of Previous Failures at the Location of Replication